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【双语汇】煤矿里的金丝雀

约稿员 快讯 2021-10-27 16 0

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参考消息网10月25日报道 汉语中有一成语为“穷鸟触笼”,语出《旧唐书》:“既知四隅断绝,百计奔冲,如穷鸟触笼,似飞蛾赴焰。”英文里也有一句相近的习惯用语:the canary in the coal mine——煤矿里的金丝雀。

最近,比特币价格再创新高。美国知名投资人、亿万富翁彼得·蒂尔在媒体上表示,后悔自己投资比特币“投少了”。但他认为,比特币价格上涨,与美国政治体制混乱密切相关,传统市场前景黯淡,投资者自然会选择去中心化的比特币避险。“高高在上的比特币价格,是美国现行政治制度不可持续的最明显信号之一。(The stratospheric price of bitcoin is one of the clearest indicators that the current political system is unstable.)”

因此,蒂尔把比特币看成是“煤矿里的金丝雀(the canary in the coal mine)”,传递出美国社会体制就要“爆炸(blow up)”的信号。

金丝雀跟爆炸有什么关系?直到上世纪80年代,美国煤矿工人下井时还要携带金丝雀。因为当坑道中的有毒气体浓度达到一定程度时,金丝雀会表现出明显的烦躁;如果金丝雀暴毙,就说明井下危险气体的浓度已经达到临界值,必须迅速逃生。金丝雀的命运非常可怜,也留下了“煤矿里的金丝雀”这样一句习语。

参考消息网10月25日报道

“For us to be able to appropriately respond and assess, we just ask if you can put down your camera, put down your phone, call 911 and then allow us to do what we do.”

“要让我们能够作出恰当的反应和评估,敬请你们放下相机和手机,拨打911报警电话,然后让我们去做该做的事情。”(美国福克斯新闻网站)

——美国佐治亚州亚特兰大市近日发生枪击事件导致两人死亡,一些目击者对事件进行了拍摄而非及时报警。该市市长凯莎·兰斯·博顿斯在随后的新闻发布会上向公众呼吁,一旦发现犯罪行为,请立即拨打报警电话,而不只是拍拍视频发社交媒体。(何娟编译)

参考消息网10月25日报道

Your Next Latte Could Be Made From Coffee Grown in a Lab

你下一杯拿铁的原料可能来自实验室

Scientists have produced the first ever lab-grown coffee, which could be the answer to deforestation. The pioneering bean-less coffee may provide an eco-friendly solution to various problems associated with our flat whites and lattes.

Rainforests and vegetation must currently be cleared due to the plants' need for sunlight, as well as the ever increasing demand for the beverage. It is believed that the average Briton consumes 3kg of coffee every year. Studies have also revealed that coffee will be significantly impacted by climate change as it will reduce the area suitable for coffee growth by 50 per cent.

However, researchers at the VTT research institute in Finland, the country which drinks the most coffee per capita, have brewed a batch with “ *** ells and tastes” like the conventional drink.

Using the leaves from a plant, Dr Heiko Rischer, the head of plant biotechnology at VTT, and his team formed cells which were then propagated and multiplied.

He said: “The idea is to use biotechnology rather than conventional farming for the production of food and, therefore,provide alternative routes which are less dependent on unsustainable practices.”

After going in a bioreactor, which carries out biological reactions, the coffee cells are then harvested before they are dried and roasted.

Dr Rischer continued: “At VTT, this project has been part of our overall endeavour to develop the biotechnological production of daily and familiar commodities that are conventionally produced by agriculture.”

“For this, we use many different hosts,such as microbes, but also plant cells. In terms of *** ell and taste, our trained sensory panel and *** ytical examination found the profile of the brew to bear similarity to ordinary coffee.”

He added: “The experience of drinking the very first cup was exciting. Growing plant cells requires specific expertise when it is time to scale and optimise the process. Downstream processing and product formulation, together with regulatory approval and market introduction, are additional steps on the way to a commercial product. That said, we have now proved that lab-grown coffee can be a reality.”

Dr Rischer predicts that in four years,production of lab-grown coffee will be approved and would have increased.

The idea that coffee cells could be used to make the beverage was first realised in 1970.

科研人员生产出了有史以来第一批在实验室培育出来的咖啡,这可能是解决森林滥砍滥伐问题的办法。这种先驱性的无豆咖啡可以为馥芮白和拿铁咖啡所造成的各种问题带来一种环保的解决方案。

参考消息网10月22日报道 

外文全称:Rachel Levine

中文译名:蕾切尔·莱文

背景介绍:蕾切尔·莱文近日成为美国历史上首位变性人四星上将。莱文现年64岁,原来是一名男性,曾任宾夕法尼亚州卫生局长。她将负责领导有6000人的美国公共卫生服务军官团,成为美国更高级别首位公开身份的跨性别官员。

外文全称:Earthshot Prize

中文译名:为地球奋斗奖

背景介绍:在《联合国气候变化框架公约》第26次缔约方大会临近之际,英国威廉王子10月17晚首次颁发了他设立的“为地球奋斗奖”。

“为地球奋斗奖”的核心议题包括:保护和恢复自然风貌、携手让空气变得更洁净、让海洋生机盎然、尽可能打造无废弃物和废料的世界、共同解决气候问题。获奖者将获得100万英镑的奖金用于推进相关项目。

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外文全称:Jose Maria Neves

中文译名:若泽·马里亚·内韦斯

背景介绍:根据佛得角总统选举官方网站10月18日公布的数据,佛得角非洲独立党候选人、前总理若泽·马里亚·内韦斯在日前举行的总统选举中获胜。内韦斯1960年3月生于佛得角圣地亚哥岛圣塔卡塔利那市,1986年毕业于巴西圣保罗企业管理学院,获学士学位。2001年2月出任总理,2006年3月连任。

外文全称:Colin Powell

中文译名:科林·鲍威尔

背景介绍:10月18日,美国首位非洲裔国务卿科林·鲍威尔因新冠肺炎并发症去世,享年84岁。鲍威尔毕业于乔治·华盛顿大学,1989年被任命为参谋长联席会议主席,成为美国历史上首位非洲裔参谋长联席会议主席。他于2001年1月出任国务卿,是美国历史上首位非洲裔国务卿。

参考消息网10月19日报道 10月17日,英国威廉王子在伦敦颁发由他创设的“为地球奋斗奖”,这是该奖项设立以来首次颁奖。

“为地球奋斗奖”的英文是The Earthshot Prize, 中文则依据了该项目的中文官网。据英国广播公司(BBC)称,The Earthshot Prize借用了美国上世纪六十年代提出的登月宏愿Moonshot,时任美国总统约翰·肯尼迪表示要在十年内登上月球,宣称:We choose to go to the Moon.(我们决定前往月球。)当时这个计划被称为Moon Shot。Shot有“发射”“射击”的意思,在口语中还有“尝试”“机会”的意思。几经演变,moonshot一词进入英文词典,既指“向月球发射宇宙飞船”本身,也比喻“极具挑战的行动”。

“为地球奋斗奖”的核心是五个“地球议题”——保护和恢复自然风貌、携手让空气变得更洁净、让海洋生机盎然、建设无废的世界、共同解决气候问题。它将每年奖励五个致力于解决地球环境问题的项目。

可见,The Earthshot Prize着眼于保护环境、保护地球,而这项工作无疑难似“登月”。(编译/何金娥)

参考消息网10月18日报道

Humanity's Greatest Achievement Might Be Building Our Successorsr

人类最伟大的成就或许是打造继任者

Avi Loeb 阿维·洛布

If the Perseverance rover finds evidence for microbes on Mars, our self-esteem will not be affected since it is obvious that we are more intelligent than they are. But if the rover bumps into the wreckage of a spacecraft far more advanced than we ever produced, our ego will be challenged.

Illusory superiority and unjustified hubris are deeply rooted in human nature. They led the Nazi regime during World War II to trigger the death of more than 70 million people or 3 percent of the world population in 1940—an order of magnitude more than the death toll caused so far by the coronavirus.

Our own civilization might perish within centuries from now as a result of a self-inflicted global catastrophe, like another world war or climate change. If so,primitive life-forms such as microbes or even crocodiles swimming in the swamps of exoplanets might prove more prone to long-term survival than self-proclaimed “intelligent species” like ours. Given our tendency for self-destruction, we will be remembered on the co *** ic scene only if we manage to launch long-lasting relics to space before we disappear from Earth.

The recently announced Galileo Project will indeed search for extraterrestrial technological objects near Earth.This scientific research program is essential for educating us about the co *** ic reality that we live in. Our galactic neighbors will not disappear if we ignore them,in much the same way that the Earth-sun system was under no obligation to satisfy the self-centered notion of geocentri *** .

We currently have a broader perspective. Life is a self-replicating molecular organization of genetic information that emerged from a soup of chemicals on early Earth and evolved through Darwinian selection to gain an advantage relative to random processes in its environment.

Even though our roots stem from a soup of chemicals on early Earth, there should be no nostalgia attached to our beginnings nor to our current evolutionary phase. The future belongs to artificial intelligence (AI)systems that through machine learning will supersede natural intelligence. AI systems could roam through interstellar space and last longer than stars, representing the ultimate winners of Darwin's survival of the fittest. The flame of consciousness that our body carries could be transferred to AI avatars that promote our goals in the universe at large—as if they were our children.

如果“毅力”号火星探测器在火星上发现微生物存在的证据,我们的自尊心不会受伤,因为显然我们比它们聪明。但如果探测器撞见一艘宇宙飞船的残骸、而且这艘飞船比我们有史以来建造的任何飞船都先进,那我们将自惭形秽。

参考消息网10月18日报道 英国《一周》周刊最近在报道美国国会讨论支出计划时用到congressional sausage-making。这是比喻,形容国会的议事过程类似做香肠,各种材料切割研磨搅拌混合,还涉及动物下水这类丑陋的东西,最后出来一个多数人能接受的结果。

把立法过程和做香肠相提并论据说可以追溯到德意志帝国的铁血宰相俾斯麦,他有一句未经证实的名言:法律就像香肠,更好不要目睹制作过程。言外之意是,立法过程难看甚至恶心。俾斯麦是保守派,维护专制王权,但他通过立法建起世界最早的工人养老金制度。所以,就算过程不堪,结果还是实惠的。

在德语里,香肠叫wurst,发音如英文worst(最糟的)。由此不可避免地出现很多谐音梗。比如:Jokes about German sausage are the Wurst。Wurst此处身兼二职,既指香肠,也指差劲,可译为:德国香肠的笑话最熏(熏字跟香肠沾边,音又同“逊”)。

据说德国有1500种香肠,其中很多由地点命名,如法兰克福肠(热狗肠)、纽伦堡肠(拇指大小,通常煎着吃)、图灵根肠(最明显特征就是长)、维也纳肠等等。比较重口味的有肝肠(Leberwurst)和血肠(Blutwurst)。肝肠主要是猪肉,有少量猪肝,可用来抹面包,中国网友称其为德国超市十大难吃食物之一。血肠类似东北的杀猪菜,佐以苹果酱。英国也有血肠,名字却叫黑布丁(black pudding)。

参考消息网10月18日报道 9月20日,北京环球影城正式开园。精彩 *** 的4D骑乘(ride)游乐项目虽然让大部分游客直呼过瘾,但也有一小部分人表示吃不消(can't bear it)——其中不少是与晕动症(motion sickness)有关。

顾名思义,晕动症即各种原因引起的摇摆、颠簸、旋转、加速运动等致身体不适的统称,是人在经历真实或感知运动时做出的生理反应。它通常是感知运动的各感官感觉不一致(inconsistency)造成的,这些感官包括前庭系统(vestibular system)、视觉系统(visual system)和本体感觉系统(proprioceptive system)。简单的理解就是,当乘坐汽车时,眼睛能看到窗外的风景在移动,但人的身体静止不动,所以视觉系统和本体感觉系统向大脑发送的信号并不一致。大脑收到矛盾的信号时便产生了不适反应。

在工业革命发明大马力的交通工具前人类就受到晕动症的困扰。英语单词“nausea”来自希腊语,释义既包括晕动症的一大症状——恶心,也包括其在希腊语中的本义——晕船(单词前缀naus在希腊语中就是船),可以想见早在千年前的地中海畔就有人深受其苦。

参考消息网10月18日报道

外文全称:Hakugei

中文译名:“白鲸”号潜艇

背景介绍:10月14日,日本海上自卫队新级别柴电“大鲸”级潜艇的二号艇“白鲸”号当天在神户市举行命名和下水仪式。“白鲸”号长84米,宽9.1米,排水量约3000吨,是日本国内更大级别,由锂离子电池驱动。该潜艇将进行最后的建造和海试,并计划于2023年编入日本海上自卫队。

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